Target 10: All critical habitats and sites for migratory species are identified and included in area-based conservation measures so as to maintain their quality, integrity, resilience and functioning in accordance with the implementation of Aichi Target 11, supported where necessary by environmentally sensitive land-use planning and landscape management on a wider scale.

 

Anthropogenic Impact

 

►    The CMS COP Resolution 10.11 (2011) on Power lines and migratory birds includes:

2.3) Establish a baseline of bird distribution, population sizes, migrations and movements, including those between breeding, resting and feeding areas, as early as possible in the planning of any power line project, over a period of at least one year, and with particular emphasis on those species known to be vulnerable to electrocution or collision and if such studies identify any risks, to make every effort to ensure these are avoided; and

2.4) Design the location, route and direction of power lines on the basis of national zoning maps and avoid, wherever possible, construction along major migration flyways and in habitats of conservation importance, such as Important Bird Areas, protected areas, Ramsar sites, the East Asian-Australasian Flyway Site Network, the West/Central Asian Site Network for Siberian Crane and other waterbirds and other critical sites as identified by the Critical Site Network (CSN) Tool for the African-Eurasian region.

►    The Resolution 11.26 Programme of Work on Climate Change and Migratory Species includes:

Measures - Vulnerability assessment:

· Identify key breeding and stopover locations, as well as key wintering sites (hotspots) for migratory species, and focus the monitoring of environmental change on these locations.

Measures - Climate change mitigation, human adaptation, and land use planning:

· Develop and/or revise environmental sensitivity and zoning maps, to include critical and important sites for migratory species, as an essential tool for sustainable land use planning and management and adaptation projects.

· Use the environmental sensitivity and zoning maps to inform the selection of sites for climate change mitigation projects, such as renewable energy projects.

►    The Resolution 11.27 Renewable Energy and Migratory Species includes:

2) Urges Parties and encourages non-Parties to implement these voluntary Guidelines as applicable depending on the particular circumstances of each Party, and as a minimum to:

2.2) Undertake appropriate survey and monitoring both before and after deployment of renewable energy technologies to identify impacts on migratory species and their habitats in the short- and long-term, as well as to evaluate mitigation measures; and

2.3) Apply appropriate cumulative impact studies to describe and understand impacts at larger scale, such as at population level or along entire migration routes (e.g., at flyways scale for birds).

►    The Resolution 10.19 Migratory Species Conservation in the Light of Climate Change includes:

11) Further urges Parties to develop environmental sensitivity and zoning maps that include critical sites for migratory species, as an essential tool for selecting sites for climate change mitigation and adaptation projects.

 

Aquatic Species

 

►    The Memorandum of Understanding for the conservation of cetaceans and their habitats in the Pacific Islands Region: Whale and Dolphin Action Plan 2013-2017 includes:

Theme 4 - Ecosystem and Habitat Protection:

Objective 1 - Support and encourage the designation (establishment) of national whale/marine sanctuaries, marine park, MPAs in SPREP member countries and territories:

4.1) Support effort to declare/establish EEZ wide / national whale/marine sanctuaries, large MPAs and marine parks with technical/policy advice.

Objective 2 - Support the management of whale / marine sanctuaries, MPAs and marine parks:

4.2) Support the development and implementation of management plans and strategies for sanctuaries/MPAs/Marine Parks.

4.3) Harmonize local and national MPAs for the protection and management of cetaceans where possible.

Objective 3 - Identify and protect critical habitat and migratory pathways.

4.4) Identify (through research etc. including the use of satellite tagging) and protect critical cetacean habitat and migratory pathways.

4.5) Link with and utilize existing large scale marine habitat programs regionally and nationally to share information.

►    The Conservation and Management Plan for Marine Turtles of the Atlantic coast of Africa includes:

Objective 2 - Protect, conserve and restore terrestrial and marine habitats for marine turtles:

2.1) Establish necessary measures to protect and conserve marine turtle terrestrial and marine habitats:

2.1.1) Identify the critical and non-critical habitats such as nesting beaches, feeding and developmental areas, internesting areas, and migration corridors;

2.1.2) Design and manage critical habitats as protected areas, sanctuaries, or impose seasonal bans on human activities;

2.1.3) Develop incentives for the adequate protection of terrestrial and marine habitats outside classified protected areas;

2.1.5) Manage and regulate the use of nesting beaches around urban areas (for example, placement and construction of buildings, artificial lights, and vehicles); and

2.1.6) Initiate and cooperate in the creation of transboundary protected marine areas, including nesting beaches and feeding and developmental areas.

2.2) Restore degraded marine turtle habitats.

►    The Conservation and Management Plan of the Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation and Management of Marine Turtles and their Habitats of the Indian Ocean and South-East Asia (IOSEA Marine Turtle MoU) includes:

Objective 2 - Protect, conserve and rehabilitate marine turtle habitats:

2. 1.a) Identify areas of critical habitat such as migratory corridors, nesting beaches, inter-nesting and feeding areas;

2.1.b) Designate and manage protected/conservation areas, sanctuaries or temporary exclusion zones in areas of critical habitat, or take other measures (e.g. modification of fishing gear, restrictions on vessel traffic) to remove threats to such areas;

2.1.c) Develop incentives for adequate protection of areas of critical habitat outside protected areas;

2.1.d) Undertake assessments of the environmental impact of marine and coastal development and other human activities that may affect marine turtle populations and their habitats;

2.1.e) Manage and regulate within each jurisdiction the use of beaches and coastal dunes, for example location and design of buildings, use of artificial lighting, and transit of vehicles in nesting areas;

2.1.f) Monitor and promote the protection of water quality from land-based and maritime pollution, including marine debris, that may adversely affect marine turtles;

2.1.g) Strengthen the application of existing bans on the use of poisonous chemicals and explosives in the exploitation of marine resources;

2.2.a) Re-vegetate, where appropriate, frontal dunes at nesting beaches, with indigenous flora as far as possible, in order to provide visual barriers to coastal development and to restore appropriate beach temperature regimes;

2.2.b) Remove debris that impedes turtle nesting and hatchling production;

2.2.c) Enhance recovery of degraded coral reefs; and

2.2.d) Enhance recovery of degraded mangrove and seagrass habitats.

►    The Memorandum of Understanding concerning the conservation of the Manatee and small cetaceans of Western Africa and Macaronesia - Action Plan for the conservation of small cetaceans of Western Africa and Macaronesia includes:

Objective 3 – Ecosystem and Habitat Protection:

3.2) Identify key critical habitats, hotspots and migratory pathways that are candidates for improved conservation.

3.3) Support the designation and management of national and transboundary marine protected areas.

►    The Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation and Management of Dugongs (Dugon dugong) and their Habitats throughout their Range (Dugong MoU) includes:

Objective 3 – Protect, conserve and manage habitats for dugong:

3.1) Identify and map areas of important dugong habitat such as sea grass beds.

3.2) Establish necessary measures to protect and conserve dugong habitats.

3.3) Assess the risk of, and develop measures to mitigate against, the degradation of dugong habitats.

3.4) Identify and where appropriate, rehabilitate degraded dugong habitats.

Objective 4 – Improve our understanding of dugong habitats through research and monitoring:

4.1) Conduct research into and monitoring of important dugong habitats.

►    The ASCOBANS Recovery Plan for Baltic Harbour Porpoises includes:

Theme 4 - Recovery Recommendations:

Objective 3 - Marine Protected Areas:

4.3.1) Expand the network of protected areas in the Baltic Sea and improve its connectivity and ensure the development of appropriate harbour porpoise management plans for these areas.

►    The ASCOBANS Conservation Plan for the Harbour Porpoise population in the Western Baltic, the Belt Sea and the Kattegat includes:

Objective 2 - Mitigation of bycatch:

3) Protect harbour porpoises in their key habitats by minimizing bycatch as far as possible:

3.1) Full implementation of the provisions in the Habitats Directive and CFP.

3.2) Development of national management plans for hpSACs (Special Areas of Conservation with harbour porpoise forming part of the selection criteria).

►    The Conservation and Management Plan for Marine Turtles of the Atlantic coast of Africa includes:

Objective 1 - Reduce direct and indirect causes of marine turtle mortality:

1.6) Develop nesting beach management programs to maximize hatchling recruitment.

►    The Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Migratory Sharks: Conservation Plan includes:

Objective 1 - Improving understanding of migratory shark populations through research, monitoring and information exchange:

1.3) Compile relevant data, improve ecological knowledge and conduct baseline studies on…essential shark habitats; shark distributional range… the seasonal and spatial migration patterns and routes of sharks; and

1.5) Identify and prioritize (with a view to developing conservation measures) critical shark habitats including critical migration routes.

Objective 3 - Ensuring to the extent practicable the protection of critical habitats and migratory corridors and critical life stages of sharks:

9.1) Designate and manage conservation areas, sanctuaries or temporary exclusion zones along migration corridors and in areas of critical habitat, including those on the high seas in cooperation with relevant RFMOs and RSCAPs where appropriate, or take other measures to remove threats to such areas.

9.3) Develop, implement and assess spatial and/or seasonal closures of fishing areas to reduce incidental capture of sharks, particularly to protect nursery grounds as well as aggregation areas for mating and pupping.

10.1) Contribute to developing legislation to protect species and their critical habitats and ensure implementation of regulations and policies on national, regional and global scale.

11.1) Develop incentives for adequate protection of areas of critical habitats inside and outside protected areas.

 

Avian Species

 

►    The Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Migratory Birds of Prey in Africa and Eurasia (Raptors MoU)

8.a) Identify important habitats, significant routes and congregatory sites for birds of prey occurring within their territory and encourage their protection, and/or appropriate management, assessment, rehabilitation and/or restoration.

►    The Action Plan - Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation and Management of the Middle-European Population of the Great Bustard includes:

Objective 1 - Habitat protection:

1.2.3) Signatories should maintain and promote by appropriate measures land uses which are favourable to the Great Bustard, such as rotation of grazing plots, the alternation between cultivation (cereals and legumes) and fallows. The timing of agricultural practices should be adapted to the life cycle of the Great Bustard.

►    The Central Asian Flyways Action Plan for the conservation of migratory water birds and their habitats (CAF) includes:

Objective 3 - Habitat Conservation and Management:

3.2.1) Range States shall endeavour to take decisions and implement measures to ensure:

· Adequate and timely supply of water required to maintain natural functions of wetlands and other important habitats known to be of importance for migratory waterbirds (especially in arid areas);

· Maintain and sustainably manage wetlands and other habitats important to migratory waterbirds (e.g. steppe grasslands); and

· A participatory approach in the planning, management (and conservation) of waterbird habitats, to enable benefit sharing with local communities.

3.2.2) Range States shall endeavour to avoid degradation and loss of habitats that support populations listed in Table 2 through the introduction of appropriate regulations or standards and control measures. Additionally, they shall endeavour to prepare and distribute information material, in the appropriate languages, describing such regulations, standards and control measures in force and their benefits to people and wildlife.

3.2.3) Range States shall provide official support to designate, conserve and manage all important breeding, moulting, staging and non-breeding (wintering) sites for populations listed in Table 2, by establishing national networks16 of all important sites under appropriate national and international conservation categories.

►    The Program of Work on Migratory Birds and Flyways includes:

Objective 5 - Enhance implementation through participatory planning, knowledge management and capacity building:

13) Promote the identification of priority bird species and sites for conservation action; develop/update full lifecycle conservation business plans as appropriate; foster the building of coalitions of partners to implement priority actions.

►    The Program of Work for the African-Eurasian Migratory Landbirds Action Plan (under development) will:

· Seek synergies with relevant regional workshops and meetings (e.g. African Congress for Conservation Biology, Morocco, Sept 2016).

· Support the development and implementation of pilot projects in West Africa that address key aspects of sustainable land use.

· Promote the use of the CMS/ Migratory Soaring Birds Project (MSB) agricultural guidelines (Bird poisoning, agrochemicals and sustainable agriculture) within the region.

· Identify stop-over and wintering sites for migratory landbirds.

· Identify and enhance conservation of the stop-over sites immediately to the north and south of the Sahara (including through data collection and seeking linkages with relevant stakeholders).

· Hold a workshop on land use change for and in the West African region.

►    The Siberian Crane MoU Action Plan for Western/Central Asia Site Network includes:

Objective 1 - Western/Central Asian Site Network for the Siberian Crane and Other Waterbirds:

1.8) For site selection, attention will be focused on sites important for the conservation, recovery and reintroduction of the Siberian Crane, including sites that are also important for other migratory cranes and waterbirds. Please see the Site Information Sheet (Annex 1) and Explanatory Notes (Annex 2) for details. These include; Site’s Importance for Siberian Cranes, Site’s importance for other crane species, and Site’s importance for other waterbird species.

 

Interdisciplinary

 

►    The CMS Resolution 11.25 Advancing Ecological Networks to address the needs of Migratory Species includes:

9) Urges Parties to address immediate threats to national sites important for migratory species within ecological networks, making use, where appropriate, of international lists of threatened sites, such as the ‘World Heritage in Danger’ list of UNESCO, the ‘Montreux Record’ of Ramsar and the ‘IBAs in Danger’ list of BirdLife International; and

12) Requests Parties to adopt and implement those guidelines developed within CMS and other relevant processes, which aim to promote connectivity and halt its loss, for example through the provision of practical guidance to avoid infrastructure development projects disrupting the movement of migratory species.