Target 14: The traditional knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of migratory species, their habitats and migration systems, and their customary sustainable use of biological resources, are respected, subject to national legislation and relevant international obligations, with the full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities, thereby contributing to the favourable conservation status of migratory species and the ecological connectivity and resilience of their habitats.


Aquatic Species


►    The Memorandum of Understanding for the conservation of cetaceans and their habitats in the Pacific Islands Region: Whale And Dolphin Action Plan 2013-2017 includes:

Theme 6 - Cultural Significance and Value:

Objective 3 - Ensure appropriate cultural knowledge, practices, and values inform and underpin management measures:

6.10) Ensure traditional protocols and knowledge are respected in the design and implementation of biological surveys.

6.11) Ensure national and local policies and management respect and draw upon traditional knowledge.

6.12) Support development of community (based) management plans to include conservations of whales and dolphins.

►    The Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Migratory Sharks; Conservation Plan includes:

Objective 2 - Information exchange:

2.6) Disseminate traditional knowledge on sharks and their habitats.

Objective 4 - Ecologically sustainable management of shark populations, including monitoring, control and surveillance:

4.9) Encourage the participation of indigenous and local communities (ILC) in the fishery management process.

Objective 13 - Stakeholder participation:

13.1) Encourage the participation of indigenous and local communities in the implementation of the Conservation Plan.

►    The Conservation and Management Plan of the Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation and Management of Marine Turtles and their Habitats of the Indian Ocean and South-East Asia (IOSEA Marine Turtle MoU) includes:

Objective 1 - Reduce direct and indirect causes of marine turtle mortality:

1.5.d) Determine the cultural and traditional values and economic uses of marine turtles (both consumptive and non-consumptive).

1.5.e) Negotiate, where appropriate, management agreements on the sustainable level of traditional harvest, in consultation with other concerned States, to ensure that such harvest does not undermine conservation efforts.

Objective 3 - Improve understanding of marine turtle ecology and populations through research, monitoring and information exchange:

3.1.g) Promote the use of traditional ecological knowledge in research studies.

►    The Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation and Management of Dugongs (Dugon dugong) and their Habitats throughout their Range (Dugong MoU) includes:

Objective 1 – Reduce direct and indirect causes of dugong mortality:

1.5) Ensure that subsistence and customary use of dugong is sustainable in areas where it is permitted.

Objective 5 – Raise awareness of dugong conservation:

5.2) Consult with local communities to encourage their active participation in conservation efforts.


Avian Species


►    The Action Plan - Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation and Management of the Middle-European Population of the Great Bustard includes:

Objective 1 - Habitat protection:

1.2.3) Calls for the continuation of traditional agricultural methods which are favourable to the Great Bustard.

►    The African-Eurasian Migratory Landbirds Action Plan (AEMLAP) includes:

Objective 1 - Habitat Conservation: Land-use changes involving traditional agriculture including pastoralism and small-scale cropping systems. Work with and empower local communities to advocate, develop and implement participatory approaches and incentives aimed at integrated, sustainable management of natural resources. This should encourage sustainable small-scale agriculture and woodland management, zonation of grazing, alternative income generation including habitat restoration where appropriate, improving both human livelihoods and the quality of habitat for migratory landbird species. Promote participatory approaches in the planning, management and conservation of sites, so as to enable the engagement of, and benefit-sharing with, local communities where these are present.