Target 4: Incentives, including subsidies, harmful to migratory species, and/or their habitats are eliminated, phased out or reformed in order to minimize or avoid negative impacts, and positive incentives for the conservation of migratory species and their habitats are developed and applied, consistent with engagements under the CMS and other relevant international and regional obligations and commitments.

 

Anthropogenic Impact

 

►    The Guidelines on bird poisoning adopted through Resolution 11.15 include:

Objective 2 - Non-legislative recommendations:

2.2.a) Use Product Stewardship (inc. maximizing economic benefits of a product and its packaging throughout all lifecycle stages) with veterinary pharmaceutical companies to minimize the environmental impact of toxics to scavenging birds;

2.2.b) Promote incentives to encourage current users of substances of risk to birds, particularly in agricultural crops (food and non-food crops), to move to an [approach?] that combines different management strategies and practices to grow healthy crops and prevent the use of pesticides, thereby limiting the risk of poisoning of non-target species.

Objective 3 - Legislative recommendations:

3.3.a) Promote the use of third-party certification system for goods produced and protected using Integrated Pest Management (IPM) to move towards environmentally-friendly consumption patterns;

3.3.b) Promote public support, particularly government-funded programmes, to encourage farmer adoption of IPM strategies to prevent risks of pesticides to birds;

3.3.c) Promote the use of tax on pesticide purchases by farmers (specifically those insecticides with the most risk to non-target species, such as birds) as a monetary incentive to switch to integrated pest management strategies;

3.3.d) Promote the use of quotas on pesticide usage to create an incentive to reduce pesticide usage and profit from the sale of remaining quotas.

►    The Report I: Migratory Species, Marine debris and its management includes:

· Promote use of practices such as deposit-refund schemes, levies on single-use carrier bags and obligations for the use of reusable items at events.

· Consider removal strategies to create an economic incentive for marine litter to be collected (e.g. collected plastics can be sold to a plastics reprocessor or sent for energy recovery), or even converted to transport fuel.

 

Aquatic Species

 

►    The MoU concerning conservation measures for marine turtles of the Atlantic coast of Africa: Conservation and Management Plan for Marine Turtles of the Atlantic coast of Africa includes:

Objective 1 - Reduce direct and indirect causes of marine turtle mortality:

1.30) Implement programs to correct adverse economic incentives threatening marine turtle populations;

1.3.2) Identify and modify economic incentives to reduce threats and mortality;

1.3.3) Identify funding sources and resources for these programs;

2.1.3) Develop incentives for the adequate protection of terrestrial and marine habitats outside classified protected areas.

►    The Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Migratory Sharks; Conservation Plan includes:

Objective 8 - Economic incentives:

8.1) Work to reform, phase out and eliminate subsidies resulting in unsustainable use of sharks.

Objective 11 - Economic incentives:

11.1) Develop incentives for adequate protection of areas of critical habitats inside and outside protected areas.

►    The MoU on the Conservation and Management of Dugongs (Dugong dugong) and their Habitats throughout their Range includes:

Objective 7 – Promote implementation of the MoU:

7.3.d) Explore international funding support and other incentives for Signatory States that effectively manage populations.

►    The MoU concerning the conservation of the Manatee and small cetaceans of Western Africa and Macaronesia: Action Plan for the conservation of small cetaceans of Western Africa and Macaronesia includes:

Theme 2 – Legislation and Policy:

Objective 1 - Promote country-level legal, policy and institutional frameworks to support effective implementation of the SCAP and to supply mechanisms for enforcing the regulations:

2.1.1) Undertake review of existing legislation and policy and disseminate the final report, including:

• Legislative inconsistencies and gaps within the Range States; 

• Country capacity to implement the Action Plan, the regional CMS Cetacean agreement and the CMS;

• Country capacity to implement other relevant MEAs, such as CITES and CBD;

• Habitat and species protection measures;

• Declaration of marine protected areas;

• Regulation of distant water and local fleets, including observer programme coverage to document effects of commercial fishing on small cetaceans.

Objective 2 - Ensure good governance and involvement of local communities and civil society:

2.2.1) Make community involvement in conservation measures and their welfare a priority.

2.2.2) Develop livelihood initiatives for vulnerable coastal communities that are compatible with cetacean conservation.

2.2.3) Ensure transparent decision-making with accountability and community participation.

2.2.4) Allow both national and international NGOs to support implementation of the SCAP.

►    The Conservation and Management Plan of the MoU on the Conservation and Management of Marine Turtles and their Habitats of the Indian Ocean and South-East Asia includes:

Objective 1 - Reduce direct and indirect causes of marine turtle mortality:

1.3) Implement programmes to correct adverse economic incentives that threaten marine turtle populations:

1.3.b) Identify desired modifications to the economic incentives in order to reduce threats and mortality, and develop programmes to implement the modifications.

Objective 4 - Increase public awareness of the threats to marine turtles and their habitats, and enhance public participation in conservation activities:

4.3.c) Implement, where appropriate, incentive schemes to encourage public participation (e.g. T-shirts for tag returns, public acknowledgement, certificates).

Objective 6 - Promote implementation of the MoU including the Conservation and Management Plan:

6.3.h) Explore international funding support and other incentives for signatory States that effectively manage marine turtle populations.

 

Avian Species

 

►    The Action Plan for the conservation of southern South American migratory grassland bird species and their habitats, adopted within the Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Southern South American Migratory Grassland Bird Species and their Habitats includes:

Objective 1 - To promote the protection and management of grasslands of importance for migratory species:

1.2) Give incentives to creation of private protected areas.

2.1) Promote, develop and/or strengthen financial and/or market incentives, economic alternatives for farmers who manage grasslands in a manner consistent with the ecological requirements of species, especially in critical areas for threatened species.

 

►    The Saker Falcon Action Plan includes:

Heading 3 - A Global Action Plan for the Saker Falcon (SakerGAP), including a management and monitoring system:

Subheading 5 - Sustainable use:

· Promote the use of the ‘consumers and extractors pay’ principle to enhance overall responsibility for sustainable use and for activities that impose a proven negative effect on Saker populations.

►    The Aquatic Warbler MOU Action Plan includes:

Objective 1 - National and international policies and legislation necessary for the conservation of the Aquatic Warbler and its habitat are in place:

1.5) Seek national and international policies and financial incentives to promote suitable land management practices at sites whose sustainability depends on continued extensive land use.

►    The Action Plan for the conservation of southern South American migratory grassland bird species and their habitats, adopted within the Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Southern South American Migratory Grassland Bird Species and their Habitats includes:

Objective 1 - To promote the protection and management of grasslands of importance for migratory species:

1.2) Giving incentives for privately created protected areas.

2.3) Giving incentives for projects involving habitat management demonstration units in experimental fields.

►    The Action Plan - Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation and Management of the Middle-European Population of the Great Bustard includes:

Objective 1 - Habitat protection:

1.2.1) In areas where traditional land use forms still exist or are restorable, the Range States concerned should develop policies and legislation, including the provision of appropriate incentives, to maintain “pseudo-steppe” and "puszta" habitats. Within the European Union and the EU Accession Countries, Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs) and zonal programmes should be used to encourage the conservation of Great Bustard habitat.

 

Terrestrial Species

 

►    The Programme of Work of the Central Asian Mammals Initiative (CAMI POW) includes:

Objective 1 - To address key threats and issues currently not (sufficiently) covered by existing work programmes and stakeholders:

1.1.2) Promote review of national legislation - and its enforcement - on hunting and trade (including relevant penalties, the simplification of prosecution, enforce bonus payment systems to create adequate incentives for enforcement personnel […]).

1.2.7) Establish and promote volunteer ranger mechanism to create rewards/incentives in herding communities residing near wildlife/protected areas/ecological corridors.