Target 7: Multiple anthropogenic pressures have been reduced to levels that are not detrimental to the conservation of migratory species or to the functioning, integrity, ecological connectivity and resilience of their habitats.

 

Anthropogenic Impact

 

►    The CMS COP Resolution 11.29 (2014) on Sustainable boat-based marine wildlife watching includes:

1) Urges Parties, in whose areas of jurisdiction commercial operations involving marine boat-based wildlife watching take place, to adopt appropriate measures, such as national guidelines, codes of conduct, and if necessary, national legislation, binding regulations or other regulatory tools, to promote ecologically sustainable wildlife watching;

4) Recommends further that, insofar as they are applicable, measures adopted by the Parties also cover opportunistic wildlife watching during other commercial and private boat-based activities; and

6) Also strongly encourages Parties to review these measures periodically to enable any impacts detected through research and monitoring of the populations to be taken into account as necessary.

►    The CMS COP Resolution 11.30 (2014) on Management of marine debris includes:

4) Further encourages Parties to continue working on the issue of management of marine debris in order to reach agreed conclusions on this subject;

6) Invites Parties to consider implementing cost-effective measures for the prevention of debris, such as levies on single-use carrier bags, deposit refund systems for beverage containers and obligations for the use of reusable items at events as appropriate to national circumstances;

7) Encourages Parties to establish public awareness campaigns in order to assist in preventing waste from reaching the marine environment and set up management initiatives for the removal of debris, including public beach and underwater clean-ups;

8) Calls upon Parties to incorporate marine debris targets when developing marine debris management strategies, including targets relating directly to impacts on migratory species, and to ensure that any marine debris management strategies plan for and carry out evaluation;

14) Strongly encourages Parties to address the issue of abandoned, lost or otherwise discarded fishing gear (ALDFG), by following the strategies set out under the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries;

15) Further encourages Parties to promote measures such as the Clean Shipping Index and marine environmental awareness courses among shipping operators;

20) Encourages Parties and the Secretariat to cooperate with organizations currently campaigning on marine debris, and seek to engage organizations dealing with migratory species to promote campaigns and raise awareness of marine debris amongst their members; and

21) Further encourages Parties, the Secretariat and stakeholders to develop marine debris campaigns of specific relevance to migratory species.

►    The CMS COP Resolution 9.19 (2008) on adverse anthropogenic marine/ocean noise impacts on cetaceans and other biota includes:

1) Urges Parties and invites non-Parties which exercise jurisdiction over any part of the range of marine species listed on the appendices of CMS, or over flag vessels which are engaged within or beyond national jurisdictional limits, to take special care and, where appropriate and practical, to endeavour to control the impact of emission of man-made noise pollution in habitat of vulnerable species and in areas where marine mammals or other endangered species may be concentrated, and where appropriate, to undertake relevant environmental assessments on the introduction of systems which may lead to noise associated risks for marine mammals.

2) Calls on Parties and invites non-Parties whenever possible to adopt mitigation measures on the use of high intensity active naval sonars until a transparent assessment of their environmental impact on marine mammals, fish and other marine life has been completed and as far as possible aim to prevent impacts from the use of such sonars, especially in areas known or suspected to be important habitat to species particularly sensitive to active sonars (e.g. beaked whales) and in particular where risks to marine mammals cannot be excluded, taking account of existing national measures and related research in this field.

4) Stresses the need of Parties to consult with any stakeholder conducting activities known to produce underwater noise pollution with the potential to cause adverse effects on marine mammals and other biota, such as the oil and gas industry, shoreline developers, offshore extractors, marine renewable energy companies, other industrial activities and oceanographic and geophysical researchers recommending, how best practice of avoidance, diminution or mitigation of risk should be implemented. This also applies to military authorities to the extent that this is possible without endangering national security interests. In any case of doubt the precautionary approach should be applied.

6) Urges all Parties to endeavour to develop provisions for the effective management of anthropogenic noise in CMS daughter agreements and other relevant bodies and Conventions.

10) Invites the Parties to strive, wherever possible, to ensure that their activities falling within the scope of this resolution avoid harm to cetaceans and other biota.

►    The CMS COP Resolution 10.24 (2011) on Further steps to abate underwater noise pollution for the protection of cetaceans and other migratory species includes:

3) Strongly urges Parties to prevent adverse effects on cetaceans and on other migratory marine species by restricting the emission of underwater noise, understood as keeping it to the lowest necessary level with particular priority given to situations where the impacts on cetaceans are known to be heavy; and where noise cannot be avoided, urges Parties to develop an appropriate regulatory framework or implement relevant measures to ensure a reduction or mitigation of man-made underwater noise;

5) Recommends that Parties apply Best Available Techniques (BAT) and Best Environmental Practice (BEP) including, where appropriate, clean technology, in their efforts to reduce or mitigate marine noise pollution; and further recommends that Parties use, as appropriate, noise reduction techniques for offshore activities such as: air-filled coffer dams, bubble curtains or hydro-sound dampers, or different foundation types (such as floating platforms, gravity foundations or pile drilling instead of pile driving);

6) Encourages Parties to integrate the issue of anthropogenic noise into the management plans of marine protected areas (MPAs) where appropriate, in accordance with international law, including UNCLOS.

►    The ASCOBANS Resolution 7.4 on Impacts of chemical pollution on small cetaceans includes:

1) Calls upon Parties to continue to support ongoing research programmes related to effects of chemical contaminants on small cetaceans;

3) Urges Parties to implement fully the provisions and decisions of organizations and treaties addressing the introduction of chemical waste into the marine environment, including OSPAR, HELCOM, the European Union and the IMO;

4) Invites Parties to inform the Advisory Committee about relevant activities in order to facilitate cooperation and exchange information and best practice; and

5) Strongly encourages the creation of a web-accessed database for marine mammal strandings and necropsy data in the ASCOBANS region, as foreseen in the Agreement’s Conservation and Management Plan; and calls upon Parties to provide funding for the creation and long-term support of such a database.

►    The ASCOBANS Resolution 6.2 on adverse effects of underwater noise on marine mammals during offshore construction activities for renewable energy production includes:

2) Requests Parties and Range States that have not yet done so to introduce precautionary guidance on measures and procedures for all activities surrounding the development of renewable energy production in order to minimise risks to populations, and mitigate possible effects to small cetaceans following current best practice;

3) Recommends that these guidelines should include where possible and relevant:

3a) Appropriate siting of devices to minimise impacts on small cetaceans;

3b) Measures for avoiding construction activities with high underwater noise source levels during the periods of the year with the highest densities of small cetaceans, and in so doing limiting the number of animals exposed, if potentially significant adverse effects on small cetaceans cannot be avoided by other measures;

3c) Measures for avoiding construction activities with high underwater noise source levels when small cetaceans are present in the vicinity of the construction site;

3d) Measures for alerting small cetaceans to the onset of potentially harmful construction noise; and

3e) Technical measures for reducing the sound emission during construction works, if potentially significant adverse effects on small cetaceans cannot be avoided by other measures.

4) Recommends further that Parties and Range States:

4a) Continue to develop effective mitigation measures, guidelines and technological adaptations to minimise any potentially significant adverse effects on small cetaceans due to offshore construction in the framework of marine renewable energy production, including disturbance effects and physical damage;

4b) Develop and implement procedures to assess the effectiveness of any guidelines or management measures introduced;

4c) Continue to conduct research into the effects on small cetaceans of marine renewable energy production, including on physical and behavioural effects, and at the individual and population level; and actively exchange information on methods and results;

4d) Continue to conduct research into the development of acoustic warning devices for small cetaceans; and

4e) Set in place adaptive management systems so that guidance can be regularly reviewed and updated in this little known but rapidly developing marine industry.

►    The ASCOBANS Mitigation Guidance for intense noise generating activities in the ASCOBANS region include:

4) Mitigation measures should be more precautionary/restrictive for activities for which scientific information is limited or for situations where uncertainties are high.

5) In cases where the applicant is already required to adopt a mitigation policy, the more restrictive rules should apply.

7) Protocols and procedures should be standardised and the equipment necessary for monitoring defined in the permit request. (The permit could eventually also include additional monitoring and reporting requests).

12) Visual observations and acoustic monitoring data must be accurately collected during activities carried out under a permit.

Further Note:

►    ECS/ASCOBANS Workshop on offshore windfarms and marine mammals: advice in proceedings

►    ECS/ACCOBAMS/ASCOBANS Workshop on chemical pollution and marine mammals: advice in proceedings

►    The CMS COP Resolution 11.15 (2011) on Guidelines to Prevent Risk of Poisoning to Migratory Birds includes:

1) Substitute (remove and replace) insecticides with a high risk to birds with safe alternatives, and inclusion of criteria in the Rotterdam Convention to reduce risks of imports toxic to birds, promotion of Integrated Pest Management, and identification of areas of significant risk of poisoning of migratory birds and mitigation of impacts through working with stakeholders;

2) Restrict/ban the use of second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides in open field agriculture (excluding best practice use for invasive species management); use best practice for the treatment of rodent irruptions minimising use of second-generation anticoagulants; and stop permanent baiting, with preventive rodent measures used instead;

3) Prohibit the use of poison-baits for predator control for livestock protection and game management (excluding best practice use for invasive species management) and creation or improvement of enforcement legislation, through deterrent mechanisms and infringement penalties, and restriction of access to highly toxic substances, with human-wildlife conflict resolved via multi-stakeholder forums;

4) Prohibit the use of veterinary diclofenac for the treatment of livestock and substitute with readily available safe alternatives, such as meloxicam, with mandatory safety-testing of all new veterinary pharmaceuticals for risks to scavenging birds before market authorization is granted;

5) Phase-out the use of lead ammunition across all habitats (wetland and terrestrial) with non-toxic alternatives within the next three years with Parties reporting to Conference of the Parties (CoP12) in 2017, working with stakeholders on implementation; promotion of leadership from ammunition-users on safe alternatives, and remediation of lead-polluted sites where appropriate; and

6) Phase-out the use of lead fishing weights in areas where migratory birds have been shown to be particularly at risk i.e. freshwater habitats, (excluding fishing weights used in coastal areas where there are significant knowledge gaps and further research needed) with non-toxic alternatives, within the next three years with Parties reporting to the Conference of the Parties (CoP12) in 2017, working with all stakeholders on implementation; and promotion of leadership from fishers on safe alternatives.

►    The Resolution 11.26 Programme of Work on Climate Change and Migratory Species includes:

Measures - Climate change mitigation, human adaptation, and land use planning:

· Identify, evaluate, prioritize and reduce the additional impacts on migratory species resulting from changes in human behavior due to climate change (the so-called “tertiary effects”).

· Develop general guidelines for mitigation and human adaptation projects to ensure that they are not harmful to migratory species.

· Ensure that where impacts on migratory species are significant, renewable energy and other climate change mitigation or adaptation structures are operated in ways that eliminate or minimize negative effects on migratory species (for example, including short-term shutdowns or higher turbine cut-in speeds, with regard to wind farms).

►    The Resolution 11.27 Renewable Energy and Migratory Species:

3) Urges Parties to implement, as appropriate, the following priorities in their development of renewable energy technologies:

3.1) Wind energy: undertake careful physical planning with special attention to the mortality of birds (in particular of species that are long-lived and have low fecundity) and bats resulting from collisions with wind turbines and the increased mortality risk to cetaceans from permanently reduced auditory functions, and consider means of reducing disturbance and displacement effects on relevant species, including deploying measures such as ‘shutdown on demand’ as appropriate;

3.2) Solar energy: avoid protected areas so as to limit further the impacts of deploying solar power plants; undertake careful planning to reduce disturbance and displacement effects on relevant species, as well as to minimize the risks of solar flux and trauma related injuries which could be a consequence of a number of solar energy technologies;

3.3) Ocean energy: give attention to possible impacts on migratory species of increased noise and electromagnetic field disturbance especially during construction work in coastal habitats, and injury;

3.4) Hydro-power: undertake measures to reduce or mitigate known serious impacts on the movements of migratory aquatic species, such as through the installation of measures such as fish passageways; and

3.5) Geo-energy: avoid habitat loss, disturbance and barrier effects in order to continue to keep the overall environmental impacts at their current low level.

►    The CMS COP Resolution 10.11 (2011) on Power lines and migratory birds includes:

2) Urges Parties and encourages non-Parties to implement these Guidelines as applicable and to:

2.2) Consult regularly relevant stakeholders, including government agencies, scientific bodies, non-governmental organizations and the energy sector, in order to monitor jointly the impacts of power lines on birds and to agree on a common policy of action;

2.3) Establish a baseline of bird distribution, population sizes, migrations and movements, including those between breeding, resting and feeding areas, as early as possible in the planning of any power line project, over a period of at least one year, and with particular emphasis on those species known to be vulnerable to electrocution or collision and if such studies identify any risks, to make every effort to ensure these are avoided;

2.4) Design the location, route and direction of power lines on the basis of national zoning maps and avoid, wherever possible, construction along major migration flyways and in habitats of conservation importance, such as Important Bird Areas, protected areas, Ramsar sites, the East Asian-Australasian Flyway Site Network, the West/Central Asian Site Network for Siberian Crane and other waterbirds and other critical sites as identified by the Critical Site Network (CSN) Tool for the African-Eurasian region.

2.5) Identify those sections of existing power lines that are causing relatively high levels of bird injury and/or mortality due to electrocution and/or collision, and modify these as a matter of priority by applying the techniques recommended by the Guidelines in UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.30; and

2.6) Regularly monitor and evaluate the impact of power lines on bird populations at the national scale, as well as the effectiveness of mitigation measures put in place to minimize the impact of power lines on bird populations.

 

Aquatic Species

For specific fisheries related threats, see Target 6.

 

►    The Memorandum of Understanding concerning conservation measures for marine turtles of the Atlantic coast of Africa: Conservation and Management Plan for Marine Turtles of the Atlantic coast of Africa includes:

Objective 1 - Reduce direct and indirect causes of marine turtle mortality

1.1) Identify and document the anthropogenic threats to marine turtle populations and habitats.

1.2) Determine and implement the best practices to minimize anthropogenic threats to marine turtle populations and their habitats.

1.5) Minimize the effects of marine extractive industries on marine turtles and their habitats.

1.6) Develop nesting beach management programs to maximize hatchling recruitment.

1.8) Prohibit the direct harvest (capture or killing) of, and domestic trade in, marine turtles, their eggs, parts or products, whilst allowing exceptions for traditional harvest by communities within each jurisdiction provided that: such harvest does not undermine efforts to protect, conserve and recover marine turtle populations and their habitats; and the marine turtle populations in question are able to sustain the harvest.

Objective 2 - Protect, conserve and restore terrestrial and marine habitats for marine turtles:

2.1.4) Conduct assessments of the environmental impact of marine and coastal development and other human activities on marine turtles and their habitats.

Objective 4 - Increase public awareness to threats facing marine turtles and their habitats, and enhance public participation in conservation activities:

4.1.7) Consider the use of local taboos to better protect marine turtles by coastal communities.

►    The Memorandum of Understanding for the Conservation of cetaceans and their habitats in the Pacific Islands Region: Whale and Dolphin Action Plan 2013-2017 includes:

Theme 3 - Threat Reduction:

Objective 1 - Minimize the impacts of the major hazards listed below on whale and dolphin populations in the Pacific Islands region:

3.3) Take actions to ensure a favourable conservation status of affected whale and dolphin species.

3.4) Ensure compliance with all relevant international regulations and conventions/agreements.

3.5) Facilitate the collation and dissemination of current knowledge of the impacts of climate change on cetaceans and their habitats.

3.7) Analyse information/impacts of climate change.

3.8) Encourage improved waste management at community and national levels (including fishing operations) to reduce plastics and other debris in the marine environment.

3.9) Reduce amount of discarded fishing gear in the ocean.

3.10) Disseminate waste management guidelines to relevant Departments/Agencies for promotion.

3.11) Consider and reduce impacts of underwater noise pollution from any source that could affect whales and dolphins.

Theme 6 - Cultural Significance and Value:

6.9) Assess the sustainability of cultural practices involving whales and dolphins that may represent a threat to whales and dolphins (e.g. Solomon Islands dolphin drive).

Theme 8 - Whale and Dolphin Based Tourism:

Objective 1 - Ensure the development of whale and dolphin tourism is sustainable throughout the Pacific Islands Region:

Objective 2 - Ensure best practice management of whales and dolphins tourism in the PIR:

Objective 3 - Whale and dolphin based tourism watching is conducted responsibly with minimum impact and maximum education and economic values.

►    The MoU concerning the conservation of the Manatee and small cetaceans of Western Africa and Macaronesia: Action Plan for the conservation of small cetaceans of Western Africa and Macaronesia includes:

Objective 4 - Threat Reduction:

4.1) To develop, test and disseminate effective mitigation techniques and gear that reduce by-catch to sustainable levels.

4.3) Promote reduction and ultimate elimination of chemical pollution or debris that affect small cetaceans.

4.4) Promote reduction and elimination of acoustic pollution.

4.5) Identify and mitigate any significant impact of tourism on small cetaceans.

4.6) Ensure all littoral developments and activities take into account effects on small cetacean populations and the environment.

4.7) Identify and mitigate other potential threats to small cetaceans, including ship strikes, entanglement in lost fishing gear and diseases.

4.8) Development and implementation of emergency measures for small cetaceans in exceptionally unfavourable or endangering conditions.

Objective 8 - Tourism Based on Small Cetaceans:

8.1) Ensure best practice management and maximise educational and economic values of tourism based on small cetaceans in the western African region.

►    The Conservation and Management Plan of the Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation and Management of Marine Turtles and their Habitats of the Indian Ocean and South-East Asia (IOSEA Marine Turtle MoU) includes:

Objective 1 - Reduce direct and indirect causes of marine turtle mortality:

1.4.a) Develop and use gear, devices and techniques to minimise incidental capture of marine turtles in fisheries, such as devices that effectively allow the escape of marine turtles, and spatial and seasonal closures.

1.4.d) Liaise and coordinate with fisheries industries and fisheries management organisations to develop and implement incidental capture mitigation mechanisms in national waters and on the high seas.

1.4.f) Develop and implement net retention and recycling schemes to minimise the disposal of fishing gear at sea and on beaches.

1.4.g) Provide and ensure the use of port facilities for the disposal of ship-borne waste.

1.5.a) Enact, where not already in place, legislation to prohibit direct harvest and domestic trade.

1.6.b) Reduce the mortality of eggs and hatchlings to maximise hatchling recruitment and survival, preferably using conservation techniques that emphasize natural processes wherever possible

1.6.c) Minimise the mortality of eggs, hatchlings and nesting female turtles caused by feral and domestic animals

►    The Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation and Management of Dugongs (Dugon dugong) and their Habitats throughout their Range (Dugong MoU) includes:

Objective 1 – Reduce direct and indirect causes of dugong mortality:

1.1) Identify, assess and evaluate the threats to dugong populations and develop appropriate measures to address these threats.

1.3) Reduce to the greatest extent practicable the incidental mortality of dugongs arising from other anthropogenic activities.

1.4) Reduce to the greatest extent practicable the illegal take of dugong.

1.5) Ensure that subsistence and customary use of dugong is sustainable in areas where it is permitted.

Objective 2 – Improve our understanding of dugong through research and monitoring:

2.3) Collect and analyse data that supports the identification of sources of mortality, the mitigation of threats and improved approaches to conservation practices.

 

Avian Species

 

►    The Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Migratory Birds of Prey in Africa and Eurasia (Raptors MoU) includes:

Objective 3 - General Conservation Measures:

8.c) To this end, the Signatories will endeavour to:investigate problems that are posed or are likely to be posed by human activities or from other causes and will endeavour to implement remedial and preventative measures, including inter alia habitat rehabilitation and habitat restoration, and compensatory measures for loss of habitat.

►    The Central Asian Flyways Action Plan for the conservation of migratory waterbirds and their habitats (CAF) includes:

Objective 4 - Management of Human Activities:

4.3.1) Range States shall, as far as possible, undertake an Environmental Impact Assessment, adopting international best practice methodologies, of human activities that could have impact on migratory waterbird populations and their habitats.

4.3.2) Range States shall assess the impact of proposed projects which are likely to lead to conflicts between populations listed in Table 2 that are in the areas referred to in section 3.2 and human interests, and shall make the results of the assessment publicly available.

4.3.3) Range States shall, as far as possible, promote high environmental standards in the planning and construction of structures to minimize their impact on populations listed in Table 2 through national and provincial/state legislation. They should consider steps to minimize the impact of structures already in existence where it becomes evident that they constitute a negative impact for the populations concerned.

►    The Action Plan for the conservation of southern South American migratory grassland bird species and their habitats includes:

Objective 4 - Population and habitat monitoring:

4.4) Promote/conduct epidemiological studies and on the impact of human activities on bird populations.

 

Interdisciplinary

 

►    The  Resolution 10.3- The Role of Ecological Networks in the Conservation of Migratory Species includes:

8) Further invites Parties and other States as well as relevant international fora, as appropriate, to explore the applicability of ecological networks to marine migratory species, especially those that are under pressure from human activities such as over exploitation, oil and gas exploration/exploitation, fisheries and coastal development.

Further Note: The following planned Resolutions are expected to include relevant measures:

►    CMS Family Environmental Impact Assessment Guidelines for marine noise-generating activities  - under development, to be presented for adoption to ASCOBANS MOP8, ACCOBAMS MOP6 and CMS COP12.

►    Resolution on Dolphin swim-with programmes (see report of Scientific Council 1st Sessional Committee meeting 2016).

►    ASCOBANS MOP8 Resolution on ocean energy (see AC22 report).

►    ASCOBANS MOP8 Resolution on Impacts of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) (see AC22 report).

►    ASCOBANS MOP8 Resolution on Addressing the threat from underwater unexploded ordnance (UXO) (see AC22 report).

►    ASCOBANS MOP8 Resolution on Managing cumulative anthropogenic impacts in the marine environment (see AC22 Report).

 

Terrestrial Species

 

►    The Programme of Work of the Central Asian Mammals Initiative (CAMI POW) includes:

Objective 1 - To address key threats and issues currently not (sufficiently) covered by existing work programmes and stakeholders:

1.2.2) Review and modify existing grazing norms (both legal and customary) based on e.g. carrying capacity and wildlife habitat hotspots.

1.2.8) Where possible, minimize grazing threats from migratory routes.

Objective 2 - To guide planning and implementation of prioritized conservation actions at a regional scale:

2.2.1) Address impacts from linear Infrastructure and maintain landscape permeability specifically:

2.2.1.b) Mitigate impact of existing fences through removal or modification to wildlife friendly designs;

2.2.1.d) Explore issues/options related to increasing border fence permeability;

2.2.1.e) Map roads of existing or predicted high volume (>1,000 vehicles/day);

2.2.1.f) Develop mitigation strategies;

2.2.1.g) Map no go areas and suitable areas for alignment to guide planners; and

2.2.1.h) Incorporate landscape permeability concepts for regional-scale development of roads and railways.

 

►    The Saiga-Medium-Term International Work Programme (for the Saiga Antelope (2016-2020) includes:

Objective 4 - Work with local people:

4.4) Promote sustainable rangeland use to enable the cohabitation of people, livestock and saigas.

Objective 6 - Habitat and environmental factors:

6.1) Remove barriers impeding the movement of saiga antelopes or, if not possible, alter fences, roads, railways and other linear infrastructure to allow saigas to pass freely, in line with CMS Guidelines on Mitigating the Impact of Linear Infrastructure and Related Disturbance on Mammals in Central Asia.

6.2) Support appropriate authorities and developers (industry, government) to ensure that all infrastructural and other development likely to impact saigas has a full impact assessment prior to implementation (including EIA and SEA), and that steps are taken to address any impacts on saigas, following best practice and a mitigation hierarchy (avoid, minimise, restore, offset), including producing saiga-specific guidance documents, following the internationally recognized standards IFC1 and IFC6.

►    The International Single Species Action Plan for the Conservation of the Argali includes:

Objective 2 - To maintain and restore intact argali habitat and migration routes:

2.1) Pastures are sustainably managed and availability and quality for argali have improved:

2.1.1) Develop pasture management plans in key sites to maintain and restore intact rangelands.

2.1.2) Involve local people living on and using argali habitat to improve land management and cohabitation of argali, livestock and people, including through Community Conservation Incentive Agreements.

2.1.3) Monitor the effects of climate change on argali habitat and integrate mitigation measures and climate change adaptation scenarios into habitat/site management.

2.1.4) Increase the effectiveness of protected area networks and hunting concessions for argali (including trans boundary), their coverage and interconnectivity.

2.1.5) Provide adequate transport, equipment, and training to protected areas and rangers.

2.4) Negative impacts of mining and infrastructure development are minimized and mitigated:

2.4.1) Ensure Environmental Impact Assessments / Strategic Environmental Assessments are conducted rigorously and transparently.

2.4.2) Ensure compliance with International Finance Corporation (IFC) Performance Standard 6 to reduce the negative impact on biodiversity of infrastructure developments and apply appropriate suitable mitigation measures.

2.4.3) Improve connectivity by removing barriers between populations and migration corridors, and if removal is not possible, by adjusting infrastructure (e.g. fences).