Target 8: The conservation status of all migratory species, especially threatened species, has considerably improved throughout their range.


Note: Most of the implementation mechanisms and opportunities noted throughout the other parts of this Companion Volume have as their ultimate purpose the improvement of the conservation status of migratory species, i.e. the same purpose as described by Target 8.  Rather than repeating all that content under this one target, (or listing all the CMS Family Agreements and MoUs, all of which expect relevant implementation measures, along with the Convention itself), the items noted here focus particularly on the issue of monitoring and assessing the conservation status of the species concerned.


Anthropogenic Pressure


►    The Resolution 11.26 Programme of Work on Climate Change and Migratory Species.

►    Improve the resilience of migratory species and their habitats to climate change, and ensure habitat availability for the full lifecycle of the species, now and in the future, inter alia through the following actions:

o Cooperate in respect of transboundary protected areas and populations, ensuring that barriers to migration are to the greatest possible extent eliminated or mitigated, and that migratory species are managed under commonly agreed guidelines. Where appropriate, this should be done within the framework of applicable CMS instruments.

o Identify migratory species that have special connectivity needs - those that are resource, area, and or dispersal limited.


►    The Resolution 10.19 Migratory Species Conservation in the Light of Climate Change includes:

6) Urges Parties and the Scientific Council, and encourages conservation stakeholders and relevant organizations to:

6.b) Consider ex situ measures and assisted colonization, including translocation, as appropriate for those migratory species most severely threatened by climate change.


Aquatic Species


►    The ASCOBANS Conservation Plan for Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena L.) in the North Sea includes:

Action 7 - Monitoring trends in distribution and abundance of harbour porpoises in the region:

1) Monitor whether the management actions of the Conservation Plan are meeting the management objectives with respect to abundance and distribution;

2) Provide regular information on the abundance and distribution of harbour porpoises in the region; and

3) Build upon the advances made by the SCANS II project and the recommendations therein to develop an agreed monitoring programme (involving one or more scientific workshops) and to implement it.

►    The ASCOBANS Conservation Plan for the Harbour Porpoise population in the Western Baltic, the Belt Sea and the Kattegat includes:

Objective 4 - Monitoring the status of the population:

7) Estimate trends in abundance of harbour porpoises in the Western Baltic, the Belt Sea and the Kattegat.

· Conduct synoptic absolute abundance surveys regularly;

· The surveys should be coordinated among Denmark, Germany and Sweden; and

· The method and timing of the surveys should be comparable to previous SCANS surveys.

►    The MoU concerning the conservation of the Manatee and small cetaceans of Western Africa and Macaronesia: Action Plan for the conservation of small cetaceans of Western Africa and Macaronesia (WAAM MoU) includes:

Objective 5 - Research and Monitoring:

5.2) Facilitate coordinated data collection to improve knowledge of […] conservation status of small cetaceans.

►    The Conservation and Management Plan of the Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation and Management of Marine Turtles and their Habitats of the Indian Ocean and South-East Asia (IOSEA Marine Turtle MoU) includes:

Objective 1 - Reduce direct and indirect causes of marine turtle mortality:

1.1.a) Collate and organise existing data on threats to marine turtle populations.

Objective 3 - Improve understanding of marine turtle ecology and populations through research, monitoring and:

3.1.b) Initiate and/or continue long-term monitoring of priority marine turtle populations in order to assess conservation status;

3.3.a) Prioritise populations for conservation actions;

3.3.b) Identify population trends; and

3.3.c) Use research results to improve management, mitigate threats and assess the efficacy of conservation activities (e.g. hatchery management practices, habitat loss, etc).

Objective 5 - Enhance national, regional and international cooperation:

5.4.g) Develop a streamlined format for reporting and exchanging information (through the MoU Secretariat and among signatory States) on the state of marine turtle conservation at the national level.

►    The Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation and Management of Dugongs (Dugon dugong) and their Habitats throughout their Range (Dugong MoU) includes:

Objective 1 – Reduce direct and indirect causes of dugong mortality:

1.1) Identify, assess and evaluate the threats to dugong populations and develop appropriate measures to address these threats

Objective 2 – Improve our understanding of dugong through research and monitoring:

2.1) Determine the distribution and abundance of dugong populations to provide a base for future conservation efforts and actions.

2.2) Conduct research and monitoring into dugong.

2.3) Collect and analyse data that supports the identification of sources of mortality, the mitigation of threats and improved approaches to conservation practices.


Avian Species


►    The CMS COP Resolution 10.27 (2011) on Improving the conservation of migratory landbirds in the African-Eurasian region includes:

Theme 4 - Research and Monitoring:

Objective 2 - Monitoring of population trends:

53) Develop and implement standardised national monitoring schemes for migratory landbird species and their habitats. Consider following the successful model that exists in Europe and some countries in Africa, based on participatory schemes using volunteer observers, local conservation groups and Site Support Groups, co-ordinated as far as possible with international efforts, with harmonisation of monitoring protocols4.4 Build capacity and improve the exchange of information, collaboration and coordination between researchers studying migratory landbird species.

58) Facilitate comprehensive gap analyses to identify and prioritise research needs, including an inventory of past and ongoing research within sub-regions of the Action Plan area through encouraging engagement of national experts on migratory landbird species with the Action Plan coordinating bodies, such as the AEML-SG.

►    The International Single Species Action Plan for the Black-faced Spoonbill includes:

Objective 4 - Conservation actions recommended:

4.2) Calls for a detailed survey of the Black-faced Spoon Bill, monitoring of sites, continued monitoring and evaluation mechanisms, as well as international cooperation to ensure the protection of the species.




►    The Resolution 11.13 Concerted and Cooperative Actions includes:

1) Adopts the lists of species designated for Concerted and Cooperative Actions in Annexes 1 and 2 of this Resolution, and encourages Parties and other stakeholders to identify and undertake activities aimed at implementing Concerted and Cooperative Actions to improve the conservation status of listed species, including the preparation of species action plans, during the 2015-2017 triennium.